Under the authority of Title 13 and Title 26 of the U.S. Code, the United States Census Bureau provides current facts and figures about America’s people, places, and economy.
The Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research "maintains a data archive of more than 250,000 files of research in the social and behavioral sciences. It hosts 21 specialized collections of data in education, aging, criminal justice, substance abuse, terrorism, and other fields". The ICPSR is a part of the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research.
Format for citing ICPSR datasets: https://www.icpsr.umich.edu/web/pages/datamanagement/citations.html
IPUMS is a collection of databases produced and managed by the University of Minnesota's Minnesota Population Center. The databases provides microdata samples from the U.S. federal censuses primarily, but also include data from several international, health, and education surveys.
Format for citing IPUMS data: https://usa.ipums.org/usa/cite.shtml
The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) collects, analyzes and makes available data related to education in the U.S. and other nations.